In a new study conducted on wistar rats scientists discovered a potential antidiabetic compound named 3, 4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-sulfonamide1.
Sulfonamides are a class of important drugs having several pharmacological agents. They possess antibacterial, anti-carbonic, antitumor, diuretic, hypoglycemic, antithyroid, or protease inhibitor activity among others2. The difference in these compounds lies in structure, molecular weight and lipophilicity and act at different receptors via differing modes; they have no common link except the presence of a sulfonamide group3.
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the most challenging health problems in the 21st century4. Worldwide more than 285 million people from age 20 to 79 are living with this disease5. Majority of these individuals have type 2 Diabetes6. This disease portrays chronic hyperglycemia, resulting from insulin resistance and/or relative insulin deficiency, associated with disturbances in carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism leading towards damages and functional impairments of various organs and tissues7.
In the study rats were divided into 4 groups having different doses of drugs. Diabetes was artificially induced in them via compound Alloxan. Changes in body weight, food consumption, water intake and blood glucose levels were noted on daily basis. Blood was collected at the end for determination of biochemical parameters and enzyme activity in serum samples. Pancreas, liver, kidneys, spleen and heart were weighed in order to evaluate the relative organ weight. Histological changes in pancreas were examined by microscopy.
It was found that the treatment with tested compound decreased the diabetic symtopms. Clear anti-hyperglycemic activity was clearly observed from the 4th day. Total lipid, level of Triglyceride and total cholesterol levels significantly decreased. Kidney and liver functions were improved. It was then noted the 3, 4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-sulfonamide is endowed with an interesting anti-diabetic activity comparable to glibenclamide; however, it could present an immunological risk, so further more studies must be undertaken.
Currently, numerous synthetic classes of hypoglycemic means are used for the treatment of DM, such as; Sulfonylureas, Biguanides, α-Glycosidase inhibitors and Thiazolidinediones. Several of these oral drugs are a lot linked with unwanted side effects or a decrease in reaction after protracted use. Therefore, the hunt persists for new therapies with effectual anti-diabetic activity at low dose without undesirable effects.
Written by: Rabeeia
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17 November, 2019