Coffee is largely consumed out of all beverages. It is grown in several developing countries including; South and Central America, Africa, Asia and the Caribbean. Coffee business is one of the most significant agro-industrial food sectors, as it produces large quantities of waste, in both liquid and solid forms1.
Use coffee or the Spent coffee grounds (SCGs) are the mainly abundant residual material attained during the treatment of coffee powder with steam or hot water for the instant coffee production2.This accounts for around 6 million tons of SCGs produced per year, since 50% of the global coffee production is used for soluble coffee preparation3.
Spent coffee grounds are of great nutritional value as they contain much amount of dietary fiber, composed mainly of insoluble fiber3. Different polysaccharides, glucose, potassium, sulfur, iron, calcium, phosphorus copper, manganese and boron are also found4. Unsaturated fatty acids are the major lipid content of major lipids contents are found in SCGs.
With changing lifestyles and other factors people are opting for more healthy alternatives of food products. Obesity being one of prevailing disease makes people to go for low calorie diet. Lower glycaemic foods are strongly recommended by the health officials who struggle for solutions to obesity epidemic and related diseases e.g., diabetes5
Scientists evaluated the use of SCGs as innovative functional food ingredient in bakery products and study the effect of SCGs and their chemical constituents on the sensory properties, volatile constituents and rheological properties of the final product6.
Biscuits were made with standard wheat flour. Rheological properties were evaluated. Then chemical, texture profile and sensory properties of the final product were studied.
Rheological properties of mixed wheat flour with SCGs dough was affected slightly with the higher dietary fiber content. Moisture content of SCGs was also affected. Protein, ash, crude fiber and total carbohydrate of SCGs were also obtained. Good source of lipids was also found. Chemical composition of biscuit point out that increasing mixing level of SCGs (2-6%) has shown good enhancement in fiber and ashes compared to control sample.
Volatile sensory active compounds of biscuits and its supplemented mix with SCGs were evaluated. 38 volatile compounds was separated and identified in the biscuit samples by using SPME/GC-MS analysis. Color parameter of produced biscuit indicated that whiteness (L*) of control sample while mixing SCGs with wheat flour at levels 2, 4 and 6% was decreased.
Spent coffee grounds is the main byproduct of instant coffee process with concerned contents of dietary insoluble fibers, protein, lipids, ashes and lower glycaemic sugars. Mixing wheat flour with SCGs affected slightly the rheological properties of dough and overall acceptability of the final product up to 6% SCGs. Therefore, biscuit of 6% SCGs is more beneficial and could be recommended to patients with obesity related diseases and diabetes in addition to people looking for foods intake with reduced energy.
Written by: Rabeeia
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17 November, 2019