Diabetes mellitus is a chronic ailment; caused by insulin deficiency or unproductive insulin that affects body’s ability to use the energy present in food. There are three major types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. 70% of pancreas beta-cells1,2 get ruptured and destructed leading to inhibited production of insulin in Type 1 diabetes. Morbidity cases of diabetes are being accelerated and almost 5-10% of cases are type 1 diabetes3.
Proper diet management, exercise and suitable drugs can control diabetes but in addition with these treatments; insulin injection or pancreas transplantation surgery become mandatory in most patients4. There are also some side impacts of insulin including dose amplification because of the insensitivity, complexity of exogenous insulin mechanism regarding time, acute hypoglycemia risk, mortality potential and chances to develop cancer5. Therefore; it’s the need of hour to develop an alternative treatment without negative effects.
In this regard, breadfruit Artocarpus altilis is being considered by experts to treat diabetes. It was reported that extract of Fosberg leaves6 of A. latilis can reduce blood triglycerid, cholesterol and glucose level of glucose loaded rats7. Anti diabetic effect of beadfruit is because of Gamma Amino Butyric Acid (GABA)8, which exists in high proportion in pancreas beta-cells with insulin9. Earlier research reported that GABA in pancreas had correlation with diabetes in regards with regulating glucose homeostasis condition10 and also including insulin and glucagon in their regulation process11.
Overall, synthetic GABA has not been usually utilized to treat diabetes because the role of pancreas GABA is still under dicussion12,13, including probable side effects. Meti Indrowati and team conducted a research to evaluate the impacts of ethanol extract of A. altilis leaves decoction and GABA on blood glucose levels and insulin expression of beta-cells in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Male Sprague Dewley rats were used in this experiment and completely randomized design (CRD) was followed. The rats were divided into normal control group and diabetic rats groups. Blood glucose levels were calculated by utilizing strip rapid test. Scientists used immunohistochemistry to determine the insulin expression in beta-cells. Quantitative data were analyzed using ANOVA at 5% confidence level.
Meti and co scientists noted that 50 mg k–1 b.wt., GABA, 400 and 800 mg k–1 b.wt., ethanolic extract of A. altilis leaves reduced the amount of blood glucose and enhanced the insulin level in pancreas beta-cells. Therefore; researchers concluded that the GABA and ethanolic extract of A. altilis leaves with a least amount of 400 mg k–1 b.wt., can be used for treatment of diabetes. GABA and A. altilis leaves targeted pancreas chiefly as antidiabetic agents. These findings will support the development of natural antidiabetic medication against type 1 diabetes mainly.
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21 August, 2019