With the advancement in medical field, pathogens are also becoming strong and exhibit resistance towards certain medication. Drug resistance refers to reduced effectiveness of drugs in which microbes has the ability to grow and develop in the presence of medicines. It is reported that volatile oils in musk has a fungistatic, fungicidal, parasitostatic, bactericidal and bacteriostatic properties. Former researches have also determined a bactericidal and bacteriostatic effect of musk against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa1,2,3.
Musk is a substance generally brown to black in color; extracted from a small sac that is present in the genitalia of deer and then dried. It has been used since ancient times for fragrance and medication purpose. Muscone (3-methylcyclopentane can-one-1) is the active element in musk and other major components are steroids and lipids. Moreover, it could contain paraffin, triglycerides, waxes, mucopyridine and nitrogenous substances1. Composites and metabolic products including alkaloids, flavonoids, sterols and antibiotics are also present in musk which exhibit defensive mechanism against pathogens. These composites may disturb bacterial and fungal cells by increasing cell membranes permeability leading to leakage of vital materials that cause cell death. It may restrain the microbes through obstructing the production of nucleic acids, generating abnormal proteins.
Ashwag Yosef Shami and Abdulhadi Almasri conducted a research to examine and reveal the antimicrobial activity of deer musk on multidrug-resistance bacteria and to proof that musk had a bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects against MDR bacteria. In this experiment, deer musk was tested against 11 multi-drug resistance (MDR) species, Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia marcescens, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. These MDR bacteria were evaluated through disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Moreover, the antimicrobial susceptibility of 8 commonly used antimicrobials was calculated on the same MDR bacterial species.
Scientists concluded that musk exhibited antibacterial activity against different bacterial strains, but at different levels. All the tested MDR bacteria which showed susceptibility to musk has huge contribution in drugs. Researchers revealed that synergistic effects of musk and their components could be used to produce the best results of its antibacterial activity and to lessen its concentrations mandatory to achieve particular antibacterial effect for food safety. This experiment also showed the potential of musk as an alternatives to antibiotics and also suggested its antimicrobial activity including fungistatic, fungicidal, parasitostatic, bactericidal and bacteriostatic attributes.
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17 November, 2019