The Blood Brain Barrier could be the initiator in the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but how? An incredible piece of evidence was recently revealed to answer this.
By adding analysis of some vascular diseases like diabetes to the mix the study concluded that the permeable BBB likely created the conditions for mental retardation1. A progressive accumulation of Amyloid β protein in brain and BBB impairment may turn into a feedback loop that caused the cognitive dysfunction and the inception of dementia2.
The activation of BBB take place within the neurovascular unit (NVU), which comprises of clusters of glial cells, pericytes and neurons. The NVU becomes defective during AD, and each of its components may suffer functional alterations that further lead to neuronal injury and cognitive deficit3.
Multiple studies publicized that BBB collapse and disorganized transport in AD models, thus play a role in neurodegeneration and pathogenisis of Alzheimer’s Aβ and tau pathology4.
Blood-to-brain seepage has also been investigated in other neurodegenerative diseases, like Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s and multiple sclerosis5.
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention calculated that Alzheimer’s badly affected approximately 5.7 million Americans and supposed that by 2050, harm up to 14 millions. Alzheimer’s proved more deadly than prostate and breast cancer5.
Alzheimer’s being an irremediable disease, and to combat with such non comprehendible disease it is crucial to diagnose it early/ in the beginning. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) leak can be examined with an intravenously supervised substance i.e., magnetic resonance imaging. Brain microbleeds, a second indication of leakage, can also be investigated with MRI. A bonus effect of BBB breakdown is brain fuel deprivation or Hypoglycemia resulting in functional brain failure and this could be visulaized via PET scan5.
Alzheimer’s is not a normal part of aging. Alzheimer’s is a progressive disease, where dementia symptoms gradually worsen over a number of years. Alzheimer’s has no current cure, but treatments for symptoms are available and research continues there is a worldwide effort under way to find better ways to treat the disease, delay its onset, and prevent it from developing.
Written by Qurra-Tul-Ain
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27 September, 2019