Advancement in medical field has led to diagnosis of various ailments and their causal agents. Among them Brucellosis is significant infectious disease caused by bacteria known as Brucella. Brucella is a zoonotic (transmission of diseases from animals to human) pathogen and cause high rates of morbidity but negligible mortality cases in the endemic regions1,2. Diagnosis of this particular disorder is difficult because; nonexistence of particular signs and it’s hard to differentiate brucellosis from typhoid, mononucleosis, leishmaniasis and tuberculosis3.
Isolation of the bacteria or detection of the anti-Brucella antibodies in blood is carried out to diagnose this ailment. For this purpose, blood culture is being used; having high standard. But some limitations are there because it is hazardous, expensive, dangerous, insensitive and needs long incubation period4,5,6. On the other hand, serological tests are convenient and have been utilized extensively for the diagnosis of human brucellosis. These tests includes Rose Bengal (RB) test, complement fixation test, the Standard Agglutination Tube (SAT) test, anti-human globulin (indirect Coombs) test, Indirect Fluorescence Antibody (IFA) test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an immunocapture-agglutination test (Brucella capt test). However, most of these tests require incubation time at least 18-24 h7,8.
Currently, Brucella Coombs gel test is latest and fast serological technique to detect non-agglutinating Brucella IgG antibodies. This test depends upon process of centrifugation gel system; same as in case of the gel system utilized in blood group assessment. In this method, antigen and antibody remain as a pink complex on the gel in presence of Brucella antibodies. Conversely, pink Brucella antigens precipitate underneath of the gel card system in absence of pathogen. Hayrunisa , Hakan and Muhammet conducted an experiment to compare the novel Brucella Coombs gel test, (modern and efficient screen and titration test for find non-agglutinating IgG) with the convential Brucella Coombs test.
In this experiment, 88 serum samples were colleted from 45 healthy people and 43 patients suffering with brucellosis. Scientists performed Rose Bengal test, standard agglutination test, Coombs test and Brucella Coombs gel test for each sample. It was noted that sensitivity and specificity of Brucella Coombs gel test were 100.0 and 82.2%, respectively. Accordingly, researchers stated that Brucella Coombs gel test can be utilized as a screening test with elevated sensitivity. Moreover; pink Brucella antigen precipitation, aids to access the outcomes more efficiently as well as determination of Brucella antibody through rapid titration provides an extra benefit. This research will help to diagnose and treat Brucellosis in more synchronized way.
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17 November, 2019