Recently in a study scientists from India, have discovered a major metabolite of antioxidant poly-phenols found in green tea i.e. Protocatechuic acid (PCA) having memory restorative properties may be attributed due to its anti-cholinesterase, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory potential1.
We know about the growing rate of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) which causes dementia, memory loss, and neuron death making everyday life activities difficult due to forgetfulness. The inhibitors of an enzyme; Monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B), might offer an alternative therapy against Alzheimer’s disease2.
Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is an antioxidant poly-phenol found in green tea. It also possesses anti-inflammatory property. It is a frequent phytochemical in the human diet. Scientists focused on the modulation of various neurochemicals by PCA in brain tissues. They investigated the potential of PCA as a monoamine oxidase (MAO-B) inhibitor in cognitive dysfunctions associated with experimental dementia1.
Previously in many reports various pharmacological activities have been explored such as; like antioxidant and free-radical scavenging property, cardio-protective, antihypertensive and cardiovascular remodeling, anti-hyperglycemic action, anti-cancer activity, anti-ulcer activity, anti-aging, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, anti-fibrotic effects, anti-viral activity, nephro-protective and hypolipidemic activity3-5.
Firstly dementia was induced in experimental animals (rats) with Aluminum Chloride (AlCl3) administration. Rats were divided into different groups. In order to assess the learning behavior Morris water mazes (MWM and Actophotometer test were performed. Biochemical and histopathological studies were also examined.
Administration of chronic AlCl3 causes severe memory deficits in rats as predicted by this study. When the Protocatechuic acid (PCA) treatment was given, rats showed an improvement in memory deficits. A significant oxidative stress in aluminum treated rats was observed, as specified by an increase in lipid per-oxidation, nitrite levels, decrease in glutathione levels, catalase and superoxide dismutase activity.
From the above pharmacological, biochemical and histopathological studies, it has been concluded that PCA showed a significant anti inflammatory activity, antioxidants and neuro-modulatory effects against aluminum chloride induced dementia of Alzheimer’s type in rats. It significantly improved the memory which confirmed its Memory Restorative Properties.
Written by: Rabeeia
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17 November, 2019