Heart attack or acute Myocardial Infarction (MI) is the main reason of death and morbidity worldwide and therefore a chief health alarm. Many global studies have specified that around 40-60% cases of coronary heart disease (CHD) clinical manifestation are of MI.
The physical and pathological reasons of MI are still not known but the researchers had demonstrated that oxidative stress, inflammation, hypoxia, necrosis, mitochondrial dysfunction (distorted energetic) and apoptosis are the crucial contributor for it1, 2.
Isoproterenol (ISO) is a synthetic compound that causes severe oxidative stress in the myocardium, which results in infarct like necrosis of the heart muscle. It is also recognized to generate free radicals and to stimulate lipid per-oxidation, which may be a contributory factor for irretrievable harm to the myocardial membrane3. New therapies are needed to treat myocardial ischemia because current treatment has only a limited impact on survival and annual cost.
Asiatic acid is a naturally occurring compound in many plants. It possess many pharmacological properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-diabetic as well as neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective actions4, 5.
Formerly, Asiatic acid has been reported to protect the cardiac tissue against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in H9c2 cell model. It could also protect myocytes against glucose induced injury by eliminating oxidative stress6.
It was also illustrated that asiatic acid could efficiently inhibit left ventricular remodeling in myocardial infarction rat model7. Therefore, asiatic acid would be the suitable candidate to investigate the cardio-protective action against ISO-Induced MI in a rat model.
Scientists from China conducted a pre-clinical study in order to investigate the beneficial efficacy of Asiatic acid (AA) against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in experimental rats8.
To perform this experiment researchers took 32 healthy male rats and separated into four groups with 8 rats in each group. Group I rats were given only saline (control), group II rats were orally administrated with AA alone. Group III rats were induced with ISO (MI model), group IV rats were pre-treated and co-treated with AA and followed by induction of ISO (AA+ISO).
Rats in group IV had increased ATPases and antioxidants activity and decrease in levels of heart weight, heart to body weight ratio, lipid per-oxidation product, cardiac and inflammatory markers. Furthermore, administration with AA greatly reduced the pathological changes in cardiac tissue and was same as the control group.
Researchers concluded the study by saying:
“Taken together, that treatment with AA considerably attenuated the ISO-induced cardiotoxicity or MI by exhibiting potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. However, further studies (clinical trials) are required to support its importance against Myocardial infarction”.
Written by: Rabeeia
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17 November, 2019