Nanotechnology is one of rapidly rising areas in technology having vast range of applications in many fields. Nanoparticles products are being used not in electronics but also in biomedicine1. Nanoparticles designed by metal oxides can be used to soak medical devices and clothes, fight viruses and bacteria and for drug delivery systems or cancer therapy2.
Out of all nanomaterials, nanoparticles are extensively used in various technological applications globally3. Aluminum and its nanoparticles are largely used in drug delivery systems. They are also used in surface coatings, batteries, fuels, car finishing, sunglasses and the ceramic industry4.
Aluminum and its compounds like aluminum oxide (Al2O3) are common contaminants of water and food as well as medications and cosmetics. It was reported that use of Al2O3 nanoparticles (NP) promoted anticancer activities of immunotherapy5. Unfortunately, minor studies have accounted that Al2O3-NPs treatment may drive to various risky effects, such as genotoxicity6, inflammatory response7, carcinogenicity, cytotoxicity8 and mitochondrial dysfunction9.
Therefore, scientists conducted a research to examine the Al2O3-NPs effects with carnosine introduction on liver and testis inflammation and examined the histopathological changes10. Carnosine was observed to be a possible candidate to defend the liver and testis versus the harmful effect of aluminum oxide nanoparticles toxicity. Moreover using carnosine reduced the oxidative stress and biochemical alterations induced by Al2O3-NPs treatment10.
Carnosine is distributed in human skeletal muscles. It possesses many properties such as; biological effects as an immune-organization, anti-aging and anti-neurodegenerative disease, depend on its anti-oxidative capacities11.
Previously many studies have examined the scheme of carnosine in lessening of nanoalumina toxicity (Al2O3-NPs) with several antioxidant enzymes which were involved in testis and liver disturbances due to Al2O3-NPs effect. But the connection between oxidative DNA injury and Al2O3-NPs exposure was not clear, which stimulated the scientists to perform a new research.
Study was performed on a rat model, which were divided into 4 groups. Rats were given different 4 treatments. The categorization of Al2O3-NPs was characterized by Transmission Electron microscope. Biological parameters were checked with help of oxidative markers.
Researchers found significant elevation in Al2O3-NPs induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) level and induced alteration in biochemical parameters in liver and testis. Liver enzymes were also reduced by using carnosine.
Carnosine exhibited lipid peroxidation and repaired the antioxidant defense deficits (glutathione reduced, superoxide dismutase and catalase) in liver and testis tissues due to aluminum oxide nanoparticles treatment.
Microscopic studies proved that carnosine had protective affects against liver and testicular injury induced by aluminum oxide nanoparticles.
Written by: Rabeeia
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17 November, 2019