The severity of any viral outbreak depends upon its transmission. If a virus or any other micro-organism has a preventable mode of transmission, the number of infected persons can thus be controlled. In order to learn about coronavirus-its diseases and severity, it is crucial to understand how it spreads across humans.
The process of infection being spread by coronavirus is termed as a “chain of infection”. Following are the main components of its chain of infection:
• Mode of transmission
• Susceptible host
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In different strains of coronavirus, the reservoir harboring the virus with or without (being diseased) itself is different. It is, however, widely acknowledged that more severe disease-causing strains of human coronaviruses have originated from different animals.
Following are the different reservoirs for different strains of coronavirus:
• Common human coronaviruses
• The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS): dromedary camels
• Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): civet cats
• Novel coronavirus: bats
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The identification of reservoir is important in the case of an outbreak. By acknowledging the reservoir, effective steps can be taken to isolate the disease-causing agent. This helps in preventing the spread of disease during a mild or severe outbreak.
The mode of transmission is the most important component of any micro-organism’s chain of infection. This is one component that can be intervened to prevent infection.
Currently, there are three modes of transmission identified for the coronaviruses:
• Direct contact
• Fomite borne
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There are two routes of infection for coronaviruses:
• Respiratory droplets
However, for severe disease-causing strains such as SARS, MERS and Novel Coronavirus, the respiratory tract is the main route of infection.
It is widely known that disease-causing coronaviruses in humans have originated from animals. However, there are several strains that cause bronchitis and gastroenteritis in animals as well. The susceptible host for different strains is different. In humans, patients with underlying health conditions such as diabetes, chemotherapy, chronic diseases are more prone to developing severe infections.
Thus, the onset of disease can be mild to severe based upon the health history of the patients. While the virus continues to multiply and spread to others, effective coping and mitigatory measures are being designed to tackle the viral infection in an efficient manner. Research is being conducted at various platforms with an intention to fight the trending disease at the global level. It is very likely that the world will soon witness a potential cure for the infections caused by Coronavirus.
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The uncontrolled transmission can lead to a severe outbreak of a disease. There are three main components involved in the spread of coronavirus disease. In all cases of coronavirus disease outbreak, the viral strain has emerged from animals and infected humans. Most strains spread mainly through the mouth, air, and nasal pathways. A set of precautionary measures can be taken to prevent the risks of getting infected from coronaviruses.
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17 November, 2019