Whey protein and Nandrolone are used as athletic food and as food supplements. Whey Protein (WP) is the milk serum protein; consisting of supplements for the anabolic procedure. Milk serum proteins are naturally created during cheese production1 and represent almost 20% of total protein in milk2. Sousa and team3 suggested the association between WP and hepatoprotective impacts, oxidative stress and increased resting energy expense. WP has hepatoprotective effects against liver injuries4.
While on the other hand, Nandrolone is one of the extensively used anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and has been utilized to cure patients suffering from growth retardation5. The AAS are also used to enhance the physical performance of individuals subjected to physical training6. However, some negative impacts have been observed after short and long term exposure towards AAS treatment. The most affected organ is the liver, which displayed alterations related to AAS7. In addition, the hepatotoxicity is the most common side effect of AAS8.
Ibtesam Saad Al-Dhuayan performed an experiment to determine the histological and ultrastructural alterations in the liver of rats produced by nandrolone decanoate (ND) as an AAS and evaluated the defensive impacts of WP against AAS-induced hepatotoxicity. In this test, twenty eight Wistar Albino male rats were used and divided into 4 groups: Control group received 0.5 mL of saline solution by oral, Nandrolone group injected intramuscular (10 mg kg–1 b.wt./week for 3 months), whey protein group treated by oral (5 mg kg–1 b.wt./week for 3 months) and Nandrolone and whey protein group. At the final stage of this experiment, liver samples were collected and processed for histological and ultrastructural assessment.
During this test, degeneration, bleeding, increased collagen fibers and widening of the blood sinusoids was observed under light microscopy examination of the liver of the nandrolone group. The nandrolone and whey protein group showed normal blood sinusoids and collagen fibers as well as regular appearance of hepatocytes with vacuolation in hepatocytes. Ibtesam noted that whey protein group exhibited normal hepatocytes, blood sinusoids and collagen fibers. Electron microscopic assessment of the nandrolone group illustrated decline in nuclear chromatin, damaged mitochondria, increased of lysosomes, some lipid droplets, damaged blood sinusoids and space of Disse and increased of Kupffer cells, whereas the whey protein group appeared normal. The nandrolone and whey protein group showed well developed hepatocytes, regular space of Disse and normal hepatic sinusoids. Scientist concluded that Whey protein may remediate the hepatic architecture after treatment with nandrolone. However, thorough investigation is still needed to pursue more development in this field.
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17 November, 2019