Tuberculosis (TB) infection is creating an alarming situation globally because it is the primary cause of mortality. More than 95% of death case because of TB mortality occurs in poor and developing countries1. Indonesia is considered as the highest TB-infected country worldwide, after India2.
Precision of the diagnosis, suitable and standardized treatment, monitoring and treatment evaluation and public health responsibility are the basic issues regarding diagnosis and control of TB. Better accuracy of diagnosis can enhance the chances to control and therefore lessen the incidence of tuberculosis3.
Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in an adult should chiefly depend on bacteriology examination, including direct microscopy assessment and quick testing. According to some investigations, Acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear positive is prevalent more in adult pulmonary TB patients having type 2 DM in comparison with TB patient lacking type 2 DM4.
In case of negative outcome of bacteriology evaluation, the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis could be based on suitable clinical findings as well as supportive assessment (at least chest X-ray) performed by qualified doctor. Moreover, the exact diagnosis of extra pulmonary tuberculosis depends on the clinical results, bacteriology inspection as well as histopathology test from the sample of the affected organ5.
In this regard, Tri Ariguntar Wikanningtyas and research team performed an experiment to explain the diagnosis spectrum of pulmonary tuberculosis. Cross-sectional design was followed and 317 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis were used for test trial.
Consequently, it was found that the precision of TB diagnosis significantly determine the success of treatment as well as control of tuberculosis infection. Furthermore, classification of TB diagnosis varies, which depends on the anatomy, outcome of microscopy assessment, history of treatment and both. During this research scientists concluded that, the diagnosis spectrum of pulmonary tuberculosis is most common in pulmonary tuberculosis, smear-negative tuberculosis, new case tuberculosis as well as smear-negative new case TB.
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