Intensive farming system involves the application of herbicide in order to attain utmost output from the available land. This technique refers to exclusively no till farming to conserve properties of soil1. Glyphosate was introduced in 1970s that transformed the grain production in Western Canada because it promoted the minimum or zero-till farming systems2. No tilling or direct seeding is a sustainable practice to defeat poverty in Europe, even in Asia as well as Africa3. But the continuous use of glyphosate leaves negative impacts on environment.
It is poisonous for the non-target organisms as well such as pollinators and wildlife. Moreover, it pollutes the soil, water and air thereby, leading to acute and chronic toxicity to humans4. However, no particular procedure is present to examine there glyphosate in the environment5.
Accordingly, Ryma Labad, Tarik Hartani and Gopal Uttamrao6 designed an experiment to manage chemical weed control in direct seeding for a sustainable production. Researchers perceive that the direct seeding machinery in combination with a suitable dose of glyphosate can improve cereal production and preserve soil quality with safety measures simultaneously by following one-way ANOVA. For this purpose, on the basis of properties of investigated soil (texture, calcium carbonate, cation exchange capacity, organic matter, C/N ratio and soil moisture), 4 doses of glyphosate were tested: 1080, 900, 720 and 540 g ha–1 with residual concentrations in the soil. The level of this weedicide was checked for 140 days and the concentrations were calculated through HPLC-UV. Afterwards, scientists assessed the yield depending on doses applied and glyphosate dissipation.
Scientists found that in semi-arid area where the cereal production depends on rainfall, the shift to no-till farming is mandatory. The use of herbicide is effective to preserve production level without irrigation but a safe threshold concentration including a decreasing of the doses must be adopted. Moreover, experiment revealed that dissipation of glyphosate in the soil under field conditions depends on the dose applied, the soil characteristics and climatic conditions. Conclusively, scientists suggested by lessening high dose to 65% of its content, the yield reduces to 1.4 t ha–1, which is reasonable during a transition period from conventional tillage to conservation tillage for soil and environment safety.
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18 March, 2019