Spermatogenesis is a process by which germ cells produce spermatozoa, which can be affected by various factors leading to infertility. According to a research, High Fat Diet (HFD) is the main cause of obesity1, which ultimately reduce sperm count. Moreover, extreme production of free radicals in human body and incapability to neutralize them as well as inability to make antioxidant against these radicals pave a way towards Oxidative Stress (OS)2. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) such as free radicals injure cell’s DNA during oxidation and cause various diseases2. According to some investigations, association between OS and male infertility has been noted till now; but a small number of researches are present regarding the vicious impacts of HFD on spermatogenesis3,4. However, preceding investigations exhibited that the obesity accelerates the OS in men5 and consequently, amplified OS enhance the male infertility4.
Nitric Oxide Synthases (NOS) is interlinked with Oxidative Stress (OS) which is one of the main factors to cause male infertility. There are three isoforms of the NOS: nNOS (originally in neuronal tissue), iNOS (originally as being inducible by cytokines) and eNOS (originally in endothelial cells). In the testis, eNOS is expressed in leydig cells, sertoli cells, spermatocytes and spermatids while different cytokines inducing transcription of iNOS is required for its expression6. Maryam Sohrabi and colleagues conducted research to investigate immunohistochemical expression of testicular iNOS and eNOS in rats after treatment with different types of diets including standard diet, high-fat diet, high-fat diet with crude garlic, high-fat diet with antioxidants for 12 weeks. The aim of the study was to analyze the hypothesis that antioxidant supplementation could attenuate or partially reverse the effects of a high-fat diet on expression of iNOS and eNOS in testis. In this experiment, scientists made groups (each n = 8) which were: SD (100% access to standard diet), F-HFD, (100% access to HFD) and R-HFD (70% access to HFD), F-HFD +antioxidants, F-HFD+garlic and R-HFD+antioxidants. The HFD consisted of a 60% fatty diet in 3 forms: without antioxidants, with antioxidants and with garlic. The testicular iNOS and eNOS were evaluated through immunohistochemical (IHC) method. Moreover; ANOVA, repeated measures ANOVA, t-tests and Tukey’s test (where necessary) to analyze the data (p<0.05) were also employed.
Findings of this study discovered that limited fat diet consumption amplify the weight, although the controlled high fat diets are favorable to lose weight. However, scientists found that impaired spermatogenesis can’t be improved through of antioxidants. Furthermore, powerful iNOS was expressed in secondary spermatocytes and spermatids of seminiferous tubules in R-HFD+antioxidants group, which confirms a potential role of iNOS in unsettling alterations of spermatogenic layer and possible roles in male fertility. This investigation can pave away to cope with male infertility and its consequences.
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17 November, 2019