Busier lifestyles, faster pace of life and rapidly developing economies are leading towards increased number of people suffering from suboptimal or Sub-health. In Chinese sub-health is also known as Yajiankang; which is a state differentiated by some disturbances in psychological behaviors or physical characteristics with no typical pathologic features1.
Approximately 30-50% people worldwide suffer from sub-health, according to WHO. Main risk factors include; fatigue (such as from lack of relaxation, working extended hours and occupational stress), unbalanced diet, psychological factors and bad habits and behaviors2.
Fatigue and an unbalanced diet are believed to be the major factors that cause a sub-health state3. Previous studies have also demonstrated that immune function and innate immunity are reduced in person with sub-health1.
Candida albicans is a fungal pathogen in humans found in human gut flora4. It has a mutual communal relationship with healthy host where as it may cause infections when the body has poor immunity5. Furthermore Candida species have become an ever-increasing problem in immune-compromised patients6.
This made the researchers to conduct a study in which they investigated the susceptibility and innate immune response to intestinal C. albicans in mice induced by fatigue combined with an unbalanced diet as a sub-health state model7.
Mice were divided into 4 groups. The C. albicans content in feces was counted and barrier function analysis was performed on the small intestine. The levels of genes sIgA, IL-1β and TNF-α were determined by enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). Expression of lysosyme was determined by Western blot analysis.
The content of Candida albicans (Gut Bacteria) was increased. Phagocyte percentage and index, sIgA level, hemolytic complement and expression of lysozyme were decreased in the mice infected with C. albicans. The IL-1β and TNF-α levels were also significantly decreased in this group.
It can be concluded that sIgA, IL-1β and TNF-α and expression of lysozyme can be valuable for assessing the immune response to mice with sub-health. The study results will be useful for identifying critical areas of susceptibility to infection and innate immune response in the sub-health state that have not been widely explored previously. Future research may lead to a new theory on the innate immune response to sub-health.
Written by: Rabeeia
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21 August, 2019