Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival. Both proteins are implicated in the liver toxicity.
Methyl methacrylate (MMA) has shown to cause various health effects on the liver. Thus, the scientists conducted a study with the aim to illustrate the impact of MMA administration on the hepatic expression of TNF-α and activation of NF-κB1.
Methyl methacrylate is a colorless fluid acrylic resin monomer that is widely used in medical and dental fields as well as in industry2. Methyl methacrylate has proved to be cytotoxic causing reduction in the hepatic levels of reduced glutathione, which is an antioxidant that protects the cell against cytotoxicity, potentiating the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB3.
NF-κB has been implicated in hepatotoxicity4. Upon its activation, NF-κB is released and trans-located to the nucleus, where it affects gene expression causing the production of many proteins including pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α5. Furthermore, both TNF-α up regulation and NF-κB activation have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease6.
Despite being toxic to liver, the impact of MMA on TNF-α and NF-κB has never been discussed by scientists. So they performed a study in which the liver was studied histo-pathologically in order to illustrate the hepatotoxic effect of MMA. Additionally, immuno-histochemistry and light microscopy were used in order to examine any alterations in TNF-α expression and NF-κB activation in the liver following the oral administration of MMA in rats.
Researchers performed experiment on 20 female rats and were divided into 2 groups; control group and experimental group. Methyl methacrylate was given orally to the exo-experimental group. After that, liver samples were evaluated by immuno histochemistry to examine the expression of TNF-α and activation of NF-κB in the two groups of animals.
It was found that liver cells exhibits ballooning degeneration (death after much increased cell size) following the oral administration of MMA. Concurrently, the hepatic expression of TNF-α and activation of NF-κB were significantly increased in the experimental rats compared with those in the control rats.
Researchers established from the data that a correlation of ballooning degeneration of the hepatocytes with the hepatic TNF-α up regulation and NF-κB activation, potentially promoting the adverse health effects of MMA on the liver.
Written by: Rabeeia
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23 August, 2019