Currently, poultry is considered as one of the most profitable businesses and contribute a huge proportion to economy. Therefore, scientists are investigating certain aspects relating poultry chicks. One of the significant aspects is occurrence of entomopathogens which can be both useful and harmful. Accordingly, susceptibility of newly born chicks towards enteropathogenic organisms because of deficiency in digestive microflora is a well known fact. Moreover, number of digestive bacteria alters with age and diet1,2. It is reported that inflection of poultry feed or supplementation cause changing in the intestinal microbiota composition.
Bacteria present in intestine are crucial for the nutritional, physiological, immunological as well as defensive mechanism of the birds3. These bacteria establish suitable environment by plummeting the pH, sufficient supply of digestion enzymes as well as accelerating the activity of enzymes in the gastrointestinal zone of the birds3,4. Conventional cultural methods which are being employed to assess intestinal microbiota are not reliable because merely 10-60% bacteria are cultural which are present in intestine5. On the other hand, molecular techniques based on the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene provides authentic information regarding microbes present in intestines6,7. In this regard, the most widespread technology is bacterial tag-encoded 16 FLX ampliconpyrosequencing (bTEFAP). This method is based on a fractional ribosomal amplification followed by pyrosequencing8,9. This technique provides an ample knowledge regarding microbiota diversity in organism health, disease and production of feasible therapeutic techniques.
Accordingly, Raed MahmoudAl-Atiyat designed an experiment to examine the diversity of intestinal bacteria of broilers by providing corn-soy diet and supplements of antibiotics and probiotics to them. In this experiment, scientist used the supplemented treatments including water, water with antibiotics, water in addition with probiotic and water plus antibiotics as well as probiotic. Afterwards, he slaughtered the 8 randomly sampled broilers and took their ileum digesta. Then, thirty two samples were employed for DNA extraction. Consequently, bacterial tag-encoded 16 FLX ampliconpyro sequencing (bTEFAP) techniques were conducted also.
Raed MahmoudAl-Atiyat observed that almost all treatments samples exhibited bacteria “Lactobacillus” and most of them were associated to water with probiotic treatment. On the contrary, different pathogenic bacteria along with Lactobacillus were noted for other 3 treatments. Conclusively, the probiotics supplements made a shift towards beneficial bacteria including Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus aviaries species. These findings promoted the replacement of probiotics with antibiotics as a prophylaxis in gastrointestinal infection and ailments.
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