In order to get accustomed in its arid and semiarid surrounding environment, camel has gone through much gene evolution. They have unique water and heat regulation pathways which allow them to live in desert environment1. As a form of adaptation, the camel mitochondrial proteins showed higher evolution rate in camelids to allow for living in different environments
Information about camel cytochrome enzyme is not known much. It is not evident whether these cytochrome enzymes were specially developed or they got adapted to its surrounding environment. Scientists performed a study in order to explain camel genome and recovering camel cytochrome (CYP 1A2) for different studies; phylogenetic, molecular modeling, docking and determination of its drug binding power2.
Camel genome is available for public use in genebank database. Recently some new sequences were discovered related to susceptibility of camel to ionophores (substance which is able to transport particular ions across a lipid membrane in a cell) toxicity.
Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP 1A2) is a major enzyme in drug and xenobiotics metabolism. In order, to compare the drug binding power with other sound characterized enzymes e.g., human CYP 1A2, docking studies will be conducted. For this purpose camel genome data was collected, CYP 1A2 gene sequence was retrieved, gene evolution rate and binding strength of camel CYP1 with drugs were analyzed2.
Investigation of gene evolution by molecular modeling studies lead to understanding the physiology, disease development and treatment opportunities3.
According to authors of study:
“Our study showed lower evolution rate of camel CYP. Furthermore, docking studies showed lower binding potency of camel CYP with two toxic compounds with camels, monensin, narasin and maduramicin. The human CYP was more effective in binding to these compounds”
Although camels swiftly got evolution in some genes in order to adapt the unsympathetic environment, the rate of CYP evolution was lower than other animals.
Further explaning the results one of author said:
“The stress of xenobiotics and toxicity might be lower in desert environment that does not put metabolizing enzymes under selection pressure. In addition, in the advent of new development of drugs for veterinary and other uses, together with modernization of camel habitat would put camels to be susceptible to toxicity more than other species. This is due to poor development of their CYP enzymes.”
The data of camel genomics were used to wrap up the genetic bases of camel vulnerability to ionophores anticoccidials. Camels showed lower evolution rate of cytochrome P450 1A2 enzyme with lower and unstable binding with drugs. Therefore, care should be taken in using drugs undergoing metabolism by oxidation in camels due to their potential toxicity.
Written by: Rabeeia
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23 August, 2019