Fascioliasis is a parasitic disease caused by liver fluke and it has become a serious public health issue in human1. Moreover, this disease is also causing worldwide losses in agriculture sector estimated at above two billion dollars annually because of amplified animal mortality as well as reduction in productivity2.
Immunodiagnosis diagnose many chronic ailments and in this regard, enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is important. It is a sensitive and easy procedure for quantitative and qualitative examination of antibodies3. Mostly, the immunodiagnostic assays utilized to diagnose human fascioliasis rely on antibody recognition. These methods employ crude worm antigens and among them the Somatic (S) and Excretory-secretory (E-S) ones comprise a main component4. But, the application of complex antigenic preparations from crude Ags of E-S and S can lead abridged specificity of the analysis because Fasciola share cross-reactive antigens with numerous parasites, such as Schistosoma spp. and Echinococcus spp5.
Moreover, according to Anuracpreeda and team6, the tegumental proteins are significant source of immunodiagnostic antigens7. Additionally, these proteins can be conveniently released from adult of F. gigantica to motivate the host immune response and hence they can be used as potential diagnostic antigens. Accordingly, many F. gigantica antigens extracted from crude, E-S or S antigens were observed to be outstanding immunogens8. Research team led by Caban-Hernandez9 reported that F. gigantica 16.5 KDa T Ag is a superb antigen for the serodiagnosis of chronic fascioliasis with a sensitivity reaching 91.4%.
Therefore, I.M. Abdelsalam10 and colleagues conducted a research to comparatively assess the diagnostic performance of Tegumental (T) Antigen (Ag) and its 16.5 KDa subunit to Somatic (S) and Excretory-Secretory (E-S) Ags of F. gigantica in an indirect total IgG-ELISA for serological diagnosis of human infection. The subunit 16.5 KDa T Ag was prepared through SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from T Ag followed by purification and elution of the selected band by Pall Nanosep microcentrifugal device also the S, E-S and T Ags were prepared. Their immunodiagnostic performance was compared in an indirect total IgG ELISA.
Conclusively, the F. gigantica T Ag was found to be better to S, E-S as well as 16.5 KDa regarding serological diagnosis. This performance was followed by S and E-S Ags. Unexpectedly, the purified 16.5 KDa T subunit exhibited a poor diagnostic outcome.
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17 November, 2019