Myosatellite cells or satellite cells are small multipotent cells and without cytoplasm in mature muscle. Satellite cells (SCs) are precursors to skeletal muscle cells. The SCs are wedged between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma of the skeletal muscle fiber. In 1961, Mauro and Katz discovered these spindle shaped, mononucleated cells in muscles of the frog for the first time1,2.
Raed S. Said and team designed a study about satellite cells, their development, function, distribution and the different cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate these cells. It was observed that during myogenesis, myogenic precursor cells (myoblasts), differentiate from mesodermal cells derived from the paraxial somites. Though, a few of these myogenic precursors do not distinguish into myotubes and exist below the basal lamina of the muscle fiber to form SCs3. The frequency of satellite cells is calculated by dividing the number of satellite cells nuclei by the sum of SC nuclei and myonuclei in the skeletal muscles. The SC occurrence depends on age, species, type of muscle fiber and health state of the muscle4.
Satellite cells are present in inactive condition and get activated, if there is a call for for muscle growth, repair or regeneration. The activated satellite cells then proliferate by undergoing multiple cycles of divisions. The molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways needed for SC activation are still tacit. Earlier researches exhibited that activation of SC initiates by nitric oxide synthesis from L-arginine within the injured muscle fibers.
SCs are considered vital for hypertrophy (amplification in size of skeletal muscle). But, the accurate function of SCs in muscle hypertrophy is still under discussion. However; use of SCs in muscles revival is still significant. Isolation and transplantation of SCs can revolutionize the regeneration of human skeletal muscles. But unfortunately; experts have to face a lot of constraints including the complexity in providing the optimum culturing conditions, collection of the most fitting subpopulation of SCs and proper manipulation of the signaling pathways that control the SCs lifecycle. Conclusively, researchers stated that SCs play the key role in skeletal muscle growth, maintenance and repair. However, further investigation is mandatory to explicate the main cellular signaling pathways that control SC fate and the influence of anabolic androgenic steroids on these cells.
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23 August, 2019