Pepper (Capsicum annuum spp.) is a significant horticultural crops and is being cultivated globally, chiefly in Asia1. Compounds including carotenoids, ascorbic acid, phenolic, vitamins A and E as well as capsaicinoids (phytochemical produced by Capsicum) are found in Capsicum spp. These compounds have activities as antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammatory2. The physiological and morphological responses can be induced in plants and other living organisms by utilizing elicitors3. Elicitors can enhance capsaicinoids production in capsicum. Salicylic acid, oligosaccharides, jasmonic acid and hydrogen peroxide are some of elicitors which are being used for generating secondary metabolites for crop protection4.
Plant activates its defense mechanism when pathogen attacks. This activation is suppported by modification in biochemical activities. In reaction of biochemical response; phytoalexins accumulates in the system5 and its production is interlimked either by pathogen infection or by biotic and abiotic elicitors for instance; synthetic chemicals, substances from microorganisms, polysaccharides, proteins and cellulose.
H.S. Taha and H.M. Abou El-Ghit designed a study to investigate the economic significance of pepper (Capsicum annuum) and evaluate the impact of different concentrations from 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in combination with 0.2 mg L–1 Kinetin (Kin) as well as a range of concentrations from Aspergillus niger as biotic stress and methyl jasmonate as abiotic stress on cell growth and total capsaicin production from different cultures of Capsicum annuum L. In this experiment, scientists manufactured callus cultures from seeds of pepper and subcultured. After 28 days, they calculated calli formation (%), fresh weight (g/Jar) and dry weight (g/Jar). Cell number and packed cell volume were determined from their cell suspension. Finally Taha and El-Ghit extracted capsaicin and quantified it colorimetrically.
Researchers noted that the hypocotyl, leaf and root explants exhibited the maximum proportion of calli formation. They performed fortification of MS medium with 3.0 mg L–1 2,4-D+0.2 mg L–1 Kin. Moreover, the maximum P.C.V was recorded after 16 days of cultivation on the same medium. Additionally, it was observed that fortified MS medium with 1.5% of A. niger in combination with 100 μM of methyl jasmonate achieved of cell growth parameters and capsaicin accumulation in significant rate during 16 days of cultivation. Conclusively, scientists stated that fortified of MS medium with 3.0 mg L–1 2,4-D+0.2 mg L–1 Kin. exhibited the optimized medium for both callus and suspension production. Furthermore, augmentation of MS medium with 1.5% of A. niger in combination with 100 μM of methyl jasmonate improved of capsaicin accumulation in significant rate during 16 days of cultivation.
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17 November, 2019