Productivity and performance of an animal overall depends upon its health which in turn is directly related to nutrition of animal. Many researchers around the world have been devoted to reduce harmful of anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) in animals’ diets. Mechanical and physical methods (heating, chopping, cutting, grinding and milling, moistening, and steaming under pressure, etc.) are being employed for this purpose1.
The ANFs are natural or artificial materials and their presence in human foods and animals feed, reduce growth and interfere with the absorption of nutrients. Examples of these ANFs are tannins, phytate, protease and excessive dietary fiber2.
Tannins are plant secondary compounds (phenolic compounds) and used by humans for centuries. These are widely distributed in many species of plants, where they protect from predation and pesticides & helps in plant growth regulation3.
The tannins of different plant species have different physical and chemical properties and have diverse biological properties4. Several agro-industries and agriculture by-products are of considerable importance as livestock feeds in less developed countries contain tannins.
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polyether compound with many applications, from industrial manufacturing to medicine. It forms complexes with hydrolysable and condensed tannins. Polyethylene glycol may react in situ with tannins that cannot be extracted with conventional organic solvents because these tannins are bound to proteins and cell-wall components5.
In a recent review, Researchers investigated the effect of polyethylene glycol and tannase enzyme to reduce the negative effect of tannins on feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, milk production, blood chemistry and animal performance6.
Supplementation of PEG has been shown to have beneficial effects in monogastrics and both beneficial and adverse effects in ruminants depend upon amount of tannin compounds in the diets. Inactivation of tannins through PEG increased the availability of nutrients and decreased microbial inhibition, which in turn increased degradability of nutrients leading to better animal performance.
Tannase enzyme completely hydrolyzes tannic acid to gallic acid and glucose. Tannins can be beneficial or harmful to ruminants, these depending on amount consumed by animals, the type of structure and molecular weight and on the physiology of the consuming species. This enzyme regulates harmful effects of tannins.
Due to this property it was established that tannase enzyme and polyethylene glycol can be used for animal nutrition and had positive effect on animal performance and productivity.
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17 November, 2019