Mycoplasma is a host specific, very minute prokaryote and found in human, many animal species and insects. Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is known as one of the main cause of multifactorial disease complex. Avian mycoplasmosis (most dramatic disease presentation of M. gallisepticum) is a chronic respiratory disease and has reported as a certifiable disease by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) due its economic losses in broilers. This disease leads towards reduced weight gain, increased mortality and losses in breeders and layers1,2.
Techniques including isolation, serological and molecular identification were being used for the diagnosis of avian Mycolplasma. The isolation method was complicated, costly and time-consuming3. Serological screening is still prevalent because of early and rapid diagnosis, but subclinical infection may not be detected. Currently, a molecular technique Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is being utilized which has revolutionized the diagnosis of Mycoplasma in chickens4. A study was conducted to determine the prevalence, serological identification, molecular characterization, sequencing and minimum inhibitory concentration of M. gallisepticum isolated from diseased broilers in Egypt.
In this experiment, 351 samples (227 tissue samples “tracheas and air sacs” and 124 tracheal swabs) and 71 sera were gathered from infected broilers. M. gallisepticum and virulence-associated gene (mgc2) were detected by using conventional and molecular methods (PCR). The serum plate agglutination (SPA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were performed on sera for examining of the presence of antibodies against M. gallisepticum. Additionally, the least inhibitory concentration test (MIC) was utilized to evaluate the sensitivity of two sequenced M. gallisepticum strains to anti-mycoplasma agents.
Scientists noted that application of classical serological methods and modern molecular techniques played the primary role for accurate monitoring of M. gallisepticum infection in broilers under field circumstances and verify the significance of periodical sequence analysis to evaluate the epidemiological status of M. gallisepticum infection in the certain country. Moreover, the in vitro efficacy of some antimicrobial agents used in the veterinary field on M. gallisepticum was also evaluated. However, further investigation is needed to control and manage avian mycoplasmosis in Egypt.
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