Smoking is one of the major causes of retarded health and ultimately death worldwide. Nicotine is recognized as the main ingredient of tobacco and other addictive drugs and one Tobacco abuse behavior or smoking behavior is devastating and cause TB, lung cancer and many other ailments. Nicotine is the culprit behind addiction behavior towards smoking in spite of the fact individuals know about possible harmful consequences1.
Nicotine is a chemical tertiary amine alkaloid and binds to diverse subunits of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in its charged state that are integral allosteric membrane proteins with average molecular mass of 290 kDA in the nicotinic cholinergic systems of the central nervous system2,3. nAChRs form a Cys-loop family of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) mediating the effects of neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) and these receptors are among the most well understood allosteric membrane proteins from a structural and functional perspective4.
A study was carried to observe and understand the nicotinic receptor signalling and their molecular interactions mechanisms. In terms of the molecular structures, the nAChRs belong to a superfamily of membrane-bound neurotransmitter receptors mediating the transformation of a chemical signal released from one neuron to an electrical signal at the next cell. Similar, cholinergic neurotransmitter system, nAChRs are also widely dispersed and they contribute in cholinergic signaling in almost every neural area.
Many nAChR subunits have been revealed to bind to either neurotransmitters or exogenous ligands, such as nicotine and acetylcholine, being concerned with the nicotinic receptor signal transduction. Therefore, the nicotinic receptor signalling molecules and the receptor-ligand molecular connections between nAChRs and their ligands are considered as crucial mediators of cellular functions and drug targets in medical treatment and clinical diagnosis. Numerous ventures have made to define the roles of nAChRs in response to nicotine and other addictive drugs. This evaluation focuses on researches and reports on the receptor-ligand interactions between nAChR receptors and ligands, including lipid-nAChR and protein-nAChR molecular relations, relevant signal transduction pathways and their molecular mechanisms in the nicotinic receptor signalling systems.
This investigation helped in perceiving the cellular receptor-ligand connections and molecular mechanisms among nAChRs and ligands. It was found that the molecular signalling and relevant signal transduction pathways of nAChRs can control the behavioural and physiological response to nicotine and other addictive drugs. It will ultimately pave a way to better preventive measures and treatment of nicotine and other chronic drug addictions.
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25 August, 2019