Eggs are considered as a complete balanced diet and contain all major nutrients particular protein. Egg also provides minerals and vitamins in lesser quantity. The sources Vitamin K and D are not much but egg is one of them1. They also provide a crucial human brain development factor i.e. choline2. Study was conducted to improve their nutritional values3.
Although eggs have full nutritional value but presence of cholesterol in egg yolk can be harmful for human health. Cholesterol content of egg is approx 200 mg which according to standards is just petite by a hundred to meet the daily needs of a person4. So, once a person crosses the limit of cholesterol intake, diseases affecting the heart preoccupy him5.
Eggs are usually high in saturated fatty acids that can be harmful to humans. Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are the good fats for human health and various efforts have been made by the scientists to increase PUFA contents in egg yolk and decrease the amount of bad cholesterol present in them.
Scientists have tried changing the fat content of egg yolk by varying ration feed of poultry. Efforts have been to increase α-linolenic acid content of the yolk which can be converted into PUFA in human body6. To achieve this plant sources like flaxseeds and linseeds that are rich in α-linolenic acid are incorporated in poultry ration7.
A major disadvantage that was observed by the researchers was that the conversion of α-linolenic acid to PUFA is not so efficient. To confer this problem the best way to add stuffs that contain preformed PUFA is to include fish oil8. The trouble observed by adding of these oils has led to the fishy odor of the egg which is not accepted by many people9.
Nutritional enrichment of laying hen diets it is not only consumers who benefit but also the producers in terms of bird health, performance and even egg quality10. Numerous srudies have been conducted for feeding diets to laying hens. Focus was given to impreove PUFC content in egg yolk. Researchers found that addition of copper sulphate pentahydrate to the poultry ration has reduced the cholesterol content11. Addition of garlic paste to the poultry ration has also brought down the cholesterol content12.
Consumer consciousness of the health settlement of DHA and selenium are ideal candidates for enriching eggs. Working with several micronutrients may increase their marketability, as well as providing effective tools for brand promotion. By giving injections of protein of interest it is possible to design eggs with protective antibodies (avian egg antibodies) produced against a particular pathogen. This technology of designer eggs can be used with greater potential once it is studied well.
Written by: Rabeeia
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21 August, 2019