Spinach family as well as the brassicas (cabbage, broccoli, brussels sprouts) contain high proportion of oxalates Oxalic acid which is an antinutrient. It can bind minerals including calcium and magnesium to produce insoluble oxalate; which ultimately bind calcium present in blood serum leading towards hypocalcemia. This condition pave a way for parathyroid hormone discharge as a result of which kidneys start to reabsorb calcium from bones1,2 and consequently kidneys fail to function properly. Diet is the source of 50% of oxalate which is excreted through urine. Mounting absorption of oxalate as calcium oxalate occurs in 46% of patients suffering with kidney stones3.
However, certain lactic acid bacteria including Paracoccus alkaliphilus4, Oxalobacter formigenes5 and B. subtilis6 etc. have the capability to degrade oxalate, because of some enzymes like decarboxylase and oxalate oxidase. For instance, oxalic acid (C2H2O4) can be converted into formic acid and CO2 through oxalate decarboxylase (ODC)7. But, the performance of ODC enzymes is affected by inhibitors as well as changes in substrate concentration, pH and temperature8. Moreover; the acidity or alkalinity influences the stability of enzymes, which ultimately affect microbial growth and metabolism. It was observed that ODC enzymes can be formed by B. subtilis FNCC 0059 and the maximum output can be attained by maintaining optimum conditions. Accordingly, Theresia Nur , Rusman , Chusnul Hanim and Zuprizal designed an experiment to assess the optimum temperature and pH for maximum production Bacillus subtilis ODC enzyme.
In this experiment, scientists cultivated the B. subtilis in oxalate medium at various incubation temperatures (25, 29, 33, 37, 41 and 45°C) for 24 hours. Moreover; in individual experiments, cultures were grown in oxalate medium at different pH ranging from 4-8.5. The cell growth analysis and enzyme activity were conducted and with 3 replicates in all experiments. Later; scientists examined the data by employing one-way analysis of variance.
Theresia Nur and team noted that the optimum temperature of 37°C have the potential to produce maximum ODC enzyme activity (0.041 U mL–1). While, in case of pH, enzyme activity amplified to the optimum pH level and after that reduced 5.6% when by increasing pH; 0.5 from the optimum point. However, highest ODC enzyme activity (0.0413 U mL–1) was noted at pH 5.5. Therefore, scientists concluded that temperature and the pH of the medium influence ODC enzyme activity. These findings can help to cope with issues and ailments caused by oxalic acid in future.
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23 August, 2019