Aquaculture is one of the most beneficial businesses in many territories. But, it involves a lot of constraints including bacterial diseases; therefore application of antibiotics becomes mandatory most of the time to cope with the situation. However; severe impacts of these antimicrobial drugs on growth and immune system of fish were recorded and appearance of antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria1. Moreover, use of chemotherapeutants also impact health badly because of drug residues2. Therefore; demand of medicinal plants and herbs has amplified.
Piper betle (sireh) is one of the natural plants with significant favorable health aspects. It is valuable to treat various diseases like bad breath, boils and abscess, conjunctivitis, constipation, headache, mastitis and leucorrhoea because it acts as carminative, stimulant, digestive, an antiseptic and an expectorant3,4. These medicinal attributes are because of phytochemical substances present in P. betle leaves which include tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and phenolic compounds5. Piper betle also contains bioactive compounds, among which; hydroxychavicol and eugenol are termed as primary components6. But, the solvent used for the extraction of bioactive compounds plays a crucial role regarding its impact on the quantity and quality of the yield7. Previous research suggested that the crude methanolic extract of P. betle leaves possess efficient antibacterial activity against several fish pathogenic bacteria8. Therefore, A. Syahidah and team conducted an investigation to evaluate the occurrence of phytochemical compounds, antibacterial activities and composition of antibacterial active compounds in methanolic extract of local herb, Piper betle .
In the first step; scientists performed qualitative phytochemical analysis to assess the presence of active substances in P. betle leaves methanolic extract. The antibacterial activities of major constituents from this extract against nine fish pathogenic bacteria were then evaluated through TLC-bioautography agar overlay assay and their quantity was calculated by HPLC method at the same time.
Researchers found methanol to be most effective to extract various bioactive substances including antibacterial compounds. The TLC-bioautography analysis discovered the inhibitory action of two compounds (hydroxychavicol and eugenol). However; the $-caryophyllene was completely inactive against all the bacterial strains. Research squad noted that hydroxychavicol and eugenol play a key function in antibacterial activity of P. betle leaves methanolic extract. Conclusively; this research will boost up the chances to develop alternative natural antibacterial from extract of P. betle leaves to cope with pathogens in aqua farming.
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21 August, 2019