In Kashmir many people rely on fishing for their livelihood and which significant to boost up the economy in this territory because of plenty of fresh water reservoirs as well as rivers. This fish fauna comprises of mostly indigenous carp (Schizothorax spp.) and exotic carp (Cyprinus carpio). Indigenous carp or Schizothorax sp. represented by S. esocinus, S. labiatus, S. curvifrons, S. punctatus, S. plagiostomus and S. micropogon etc. But unfortunately, oxygen depletion in the rivers and other water bodies; because of eutrophication (presence of excessively enriched minerals and nutrients which produce unnecessary growth of plants and algae in water) has left devastating impacts. This phenomenon leads towards deteriorated water quality because of which growth and development of a sensitive fish; Schizothorax species has obstructed. Moreover; existence of parasites (including Pomphorhynchus (acanthocephalan) in fish is a main source to reduce the production of this species. This particular parasite affects the antioxidant enzymes.
Antioxidant system has the enzymes which provides shield against the disastrous impacts of the reactive oxygen species (ROS); generated by parasites1. ROS consists of superoxides, hydroxide radicals, oxides of nitrogen and glutathione peroxide. Antioxidant defense system possesses both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants to guard against free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The enzymatic antioxidants mostly involved certain enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxide (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR). Decline in antioxidants amplified the production of ROS2 which ultimatel cause a condition known as oxidative stress.
Accordingly, Shafaquat, Syed Tanveer and Showkat Ahmad conducted a research to investigate the antioxidant status in muscle, intestine and liver tissues of Schizothorax plagiostomus parasitized by Pomphorhyncus. In this experiment, scientists obtained the nine fish specimens (infected with Pomphorhyncus, an acanthocephalan parasite) from Nallah Sukhnag (Budgam). Then; Shafaquat and team examined the same number of fishes with and without infection for enzymatic antioxidants. Lipid peroxidation and protein content was also evalutaed for both types of fishes. Moreover, the whole data were represented as mean and standard deviation, statistically.
Scientists noted the decline of glutathione-s-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), protein concentration whereas amplification in lipid peroxidation in infected muscles, intestine and liver tissues in comparison with particular organs of the uninfected fishes. Conclusively, the outcomes exhibited that parasitic infections induce oxidative stress in fishes.
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