Cancer is also termed as malignancy, in which abnormal growth of cells occur and is one of the most threatening ailment globally. There are many types of cancer and breast cancer is the most extensively diagnosed cancer in women1. Chemotherapy is being used to cure cancer. But, because of harmful impacts of chemicals present in anticancer drugs2, experts are switching towards alternative treatment methods including natural products e.g. herbs3. Furthermore utilization of phytoestrogens found in soya beans can also lessen the risk of breast cancer4.
Carica papaya leaf is one of the herbal medicine which is being used to cure various diseases including healing of burns, relief of asthma symptoms, treatment of intestinal worms, treatment of digestion problems, fever control and treatment of amoebic dysentery5,6. It is also reported that Papaya leaf can increase appetite, ease menstrual pain and relieve nausea7. According to a research; papaya leaf extract could stop development of cancer cells including breast cancer8.
Fatma Zuhrotun Nisa and co scientists conducted a research to demonstrate specific breast cancer cell lines and also tested the apoptotic induced. Scientists also investigated the anti-proliferative and apoptotic induced impact of papaya leaves extracts on human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7. For this purpose; inhibitory on cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay while apoptosis induction was measured using Annexin V.
Researchers concluded that the Carica papaya leaves extract particularly inhibit feasibility of human breast cancer cells MCF-7. Carica papaya leaves extract play a major role in anti-proliferative and apoptotic induction but, the mechanism of the action is still not understood. Consequently, thorough and detailed researh including isolation of individual active flavonoid and elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved is required to completely identify the active ingredient and potential of Carica papaya leaves as a chemopreventive component.
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