Taxol is a very important natural anticancer drug particularly used for the treatment of ovarian and breast cancer. The active ingredient present in it is Paclitaxel1. Paclitaxel and its derivatives were isolated for the first time from Taxus brefilova2. Recently, taxanes have also been isolated from some fungi3.
Paclitaxel was firstly obtained in 1998 from various types of nut trees grown in America. It was purified and then analysed by using HPLC and mass spectroscopy4. After this analysis, its chemical structure was discovered and amount of taxane compounds was determined4.
A series of purification and separation processes are involved in extraction of taxol derivatives in high purity. Purpose of organic extraction and final purification is to obtain high quality and pure compounds. Up till now different methods have been employed to get this. Chromatography is one of common among them.
In purification process achieving high efficiency success through the sole use of solvent extraction and chromatography has been difficult and laborious. At the same time, in such chromatographic methods, meddling of paclitaxel related compounds such as terpenoid, lipid, chlorophyll and phenols has occurred and the purity has decreased accordingly.
Therefore, the amount of paclitaxel obtained through direct chromatographic methods is low without any pre-purification method and also the purity decreases due to interference. In addition, chromatographic methods may not be controlled and extra steps, such as crystallization, may be required to achieve high purity5.
The development of an effectual method for the industrial measurement of paclitaxel entails for diverse adsorbents to be tested. In order to obtain taxol derivatives in organic solvents both in high purity and high amounts, it is necessary to carry out a final purification process after a pre-purification process. In these steps, it can be said that the pre-purification process is extremely important.
Keeping in mind the above facts scientists conducted a study to determine the most effective adsorbent on the purity and efficiency of these taxane compounds from nutshells. The adsorbent effect on the purification of taxane compounds from hazelnut shells was deliberated by means of diverse adsorbent materials6.
For this purpose, extracts were obtained from samples of hazelnut shells collected, dried and ground into solvents. The resulting extract was concentrated into a stock solution. Samples taken from the stock solution were separately treated with seven different adsorbent materials and then filtered and analyzed with HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography).
The HPLC analysis of taxane compounds determined on taxane, both the purification and whether or not the substance was lost, by measuring the efficiency at the same time. Graphene-oxide was found to be the adsorbent with the highest positive effect on the purification of paclitaxel in hazelnut nutshells in all cases. Graphene-oxide also had the least loss in terms of paclitaxel yield efficiency in hazelnut nutshells.
The effect of adsorbent treatment increased both the purity and efficiency of taxane compounds. Therefore it is a useful pre-purification method for shells obtained from Turkish hazelnuts. This shell waste material may prove to be a good alternative source of taxol as an anticancer drug.
Written by: Rabeeia
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22 August, 2019