Human brain is prone to ischemic stroke due to various reasons. These strokes are third major cause of death worldwide and can cause long lasting disabilities1. The Oxygen and Glucose Deprivation (OGD) in brain tissues is mostly under consideration as an in vitro model of cerebral ischemia causing the neuronal collapse2.
Melissa officinalis or the Lemon Balm has been traditionally used as herbal medicine for a long time in Iran3. The extracts of this plant are used to treat indigestion, anemia, palpitation and mood disorders4. It also has beneficial effects for Alzheimer’s disease patients5.
Nevertheless, the mechanism and components involved in its neuro-protective properties are not well known. It is declared that the major effectual components of this plant are poly-phenols and terpenoids. So the scientists conducted a novel study with objective to understand the sights of neuro-protection provided by M. officinalis against OGD-R in rat’s brain cortex slices6.
Mitochondrial viability assays were performed via the colorimetric MTT method. After 2 h of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by 1 h of reperfusion, only viable slices showed the ability to trim down MTT into a purple “Formazan” product that was soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Absorbance was measured and the net absorbance was taken as an index of cell viability.
It was found that oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by re-oxygenation led to cell damage/death via an amplifying ROS/free radicals production in rat’s brain cortex slices compared with control group. Melissa officinalis displayed potential role in neuro-protection against OGD, followed by re-oxygenation in mitochondrial viability assays.
Moreover it declined or slow down the production of free radicals in the supernatant and slices homogenate of cortex. The higher concentrations of Melissa officinalis slightly showed neurotoxicity for cortex slices which might be attributed to its pro-oxidant outcome.
Written by: Rabeeia
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