Swiss chard leaf extract can attenuate gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats possibly by its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties, a new study predicted1.
Gentamicin is an antibiotic obtained from a fungus and other related species. It has a wide-ranging action against hostile gram negative bacterial infections and some strains of Gram-positive bacteria2. It is an important bactericidal agent but have some adverse side effects like; ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and neuromuscular problems it is avoided to use3.
Use of natural and dietary products as promising chemoprotective agents is increasing gradually. Swiss chard is a herbaceous plant having excellent nutrients and phytochemicals4. Previous studies have showed that swiss chard contains impressive amount of minerals as potassium, iron, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and rich in vitamins as vitamin A, B3, B5, B9, E, also they are enriched with phenolic acids and flavonoids. Syringic and caffeic acids are the most abundant phenolic acids5, 6.
Modern pharmacology and folk medicine, both have demonstrated the presence of bioactive flavonoids in Swiss chard. It possesses the hypoglycemic effect, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertension, anti-cancer effects, hypo-lipidic, hepato-protective activities as well as high anti-oxidant activity. Folk medicine also proved that it treats the liver and kidney diseases by stimulating the hematopoietic and immune systems7.
Researchers conducted a study to evaluate the possible protective effect of Swiss chard against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats. For this, 24 rats were divided into 4 groups having different concentrations of compounds. Group 1 as a control, group 2 to 4 injected by gentamicin for 15 days. Swiss chard extract was orally administrated 1 week before and along with gentamicin treatment to groups 3 and 4 at doses of 300 and 600 mg kg–1 body weight daily, respectively.
It was found that gentamicin significantly altered the serum levels of liver and kidney markers. These lead to notable changes in urinary urea, creatinine, micro-total protein and vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. Swiss chard greatly decreased the severity of renal tubular and hepatic necrosis induced by gentamicin.
Results specified the protective effects of methanolic extract of Swiss chard in a dose dependent manner against gentamicin-induced hepato-renal toxicity. The high antioxidant capacities of Swiss chard together with the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties are supposed to be related to its flavonoid contents. Hence, Swiss chard could be a promising therapeutic agent in alleviating gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in clinical trials.
Written by: Rabeeia
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17 November, 2019