Cows are considered as vital component of live stock and contributing towards huge GDP but sometimes, various complexities create huge trouble and repeat breeding is one of them. Repeat breeding is a major reproductive disorder in dairy cattle and it happens when a cow fails to conceive after three inseminations (implantation of sperm into female cervix) in the absence of detectable abnormalities. These cows are termed as repeat breeders1 and the phenomenon is known as repeat breeding; which has adverse effects on fertility and cause a reduction in milk production, raised calving intervals and amplification in culling rates. Ultimately, it leads to low output in the cattle industry and consequently leads to worst economy. 2.
Moreover, fertility can be affected and reduced because of nutrient imbalances and starvation. Changes in some biochemical components (critical for proper physiological roles) can have undesirable effects on reproductivity . Blood glucose levels, plasma cholesterol (precursors of steroid hormone synthesis) and plasma total protein (required for the biosynthesis) were reported, significantly less in repeat breeders as compared to fertile cows and buffaloes3,4, whereas plasma urea appeared to be elevated5,6. Elevated amount of urea nitrogen levels negatively impacts the quality of uterine fluid because of higher concentration of ammonia. Consequently, the direct toxic effect of ammonia and urea on endometrium causes conception failure7. Stumpy levels of serum glucose inhibit the follicle and ovum development. Moreover, nutritional shortage also adversely affects mortality rates due to insufficient ovarian steroid hormone. Cholesterol is a compound that functions in the formation of body cell walls, precursors of steroid hormone synthesis, vitamin D and bile salts7.
An investigation was carried out to check the blood biochemical levels in repeat breeder and fertile Ongole cross breed cows. For this purpose comparison of the blood biochemical profiles from 30 repeat breeders and 30 fertile Ongole cross breed cows was performed. Plasma glucose, total cholesterol, total protein and urea nitrogen concentrations were scanned in repeat breeder cows and compared with fertile cows. Total cholesterol and urea nitrogen concentrations were calculated by means of commercially available kits and a non-commercial kit was utilized to conclude total protein content.
This experiment showed considerably dissimilar blood profiles between repeat breeder and fertile cows. Particularly, lower levels of glucose, total cholesterol and total protein as well as higher levels of urea nitrogen in repeat breeder cows in comparison with fertile cows. Scientists predicted that these particular abnormalities can leads towards reproductive troubles in repeat breeders. Moreover, this study helps to indicate that biochemical blood profiling could be used as a diagnostic tool for repeat breeding.
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17 November, 2019