Enhancement in population growth and because of oil reserves depletion, demand of fuel is being accelerated day by day. Therefore, it’s the need of hour to hunt some non edible biofuel plants for more oil production to meet with the requirements of fuel. Reutealis trisperma (Philippines tung or Kemiri Sunan); mostly found in Indonesia and is one of the vital plants having seeds with elevated amount of oil1. Moreover, R. trisperma can acclimatize during adverse environmental conditions; hence it can serve as an alternative source of renewable energy crops in Indonesia particularly in critical land such as post mining land as approximately 59 million hectares of critical land is present in Indonesia2.
Post mined lands particularly gold mine lands are considered as critical for development of plants, due to high content of cyanide, less nutrients and organic matter3. Moreover, occasionally; elevated concentrations of lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) can also be found in such lands4. Cyanide inhibits cytochrome C oxidase in the mitochondrial electron transport chain and certain enzymes including catalase, peroxidase, nitrate/nitrite reductase, superoxide dismutase and Rubisco5. Thus, it restrains the metabolic process of respiration in the plants6. In addition, it leads towards lofty accumulation of free radicals7 which ultimately hinders the growth and transpiration in plants and finally death8. But fortunately, a lot of plants such as some grasses and woody plants (e.g. willow and poplar) possess defensive mechanism against cyanide as well as potential for phytoremediation9. Accordingly, it is reported that R. trisperma varieties have the capability to grow in tin post-mined lands but no researches have done to examine the potential of this plant against gold post-mined land.
Hamim Hamim and colleagues conducted a research to examine the capability of Reutealis trisperma (R. trisperma) to survive in gold mined wastewater. For this purpose, 5 R. trisperma varieties including Kemiri Minyak-1 (KM1), Kemiri Minyak-2 (KM2), Kermindo-1 (KD1), Kermindo-2 (KD2) and Harapan (HR) were selected. Afterwards; scientists exposed these plants to wastewater from gold mining industry having different concentrations of 0, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 mL for two weeks. Shoot and root growth, anatomy and some physiological characteristics were also evaluated in this experiment.
Hamim and team noted reduction in leaf growth as well as chlorophyll content of in response to treatment with gold-mine wastewater of all varieties whereas; malondialdehyde content increased dramatically. TEM analysis exhibited that the root cells of plants after treatment with highest gold-mine wastewater exhibited shrinkage and elevated number of mitochondria and peroxisomes. However; R. trisperma varieties KM2 and KD2 were considered as the most tolerant varieties according to PCA analysis as variations were observed in their reactions towards the gold-mine wastewater treatment.
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17 November, 2019