Wimpy immune system in infants leads to many health disorders and acute gastroenteritis is one of them which leads to diarrhoea or vomiting (or both) for more than seven days. It can also be accompanied by fever, abdominal pain and anorexia. Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the foremost culprits behind diseases and death rates among children1. Two million children having age less than 5 years die because of AGE every year 2,3. Majority of the severe pediatric diarrhea are caused by a pathogen known as Rotavirus (RV)4,5. Specifically, South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are highly affected because of rotavirus dependent mortality1,4,6,7. Rotaviruses are creating alarming situation in health sector for children under 5 years, both in developing countries with unhygienic environments and developed countries (having adequate sanitation).
Scientists are investigating genetic structure of Rotavirus and it was reported that genotypes of group A human rotavirus (RVA) possess heterogeneous global distribution. The G-P combinations found in Africa are surprisingly different as compared to those prevailing in other regions of the world8. Currently, two types of rotavirus vaccine are being used globally: Rotarix® and RotaTeq®. But; this treatment method has exhibited decreased effectiveness in Africa because of differences of RV genotypes circulating in the sub-continent9.
Ouermi and co scientists conducted a study to perform review of literature on molecular epidemiology to evaluate the prevalence of group RVA genotypes in African countries and set up a mapping of reliable data on these diverse genotypes to establish effective vaccines against different RV genotypes. Articles ( source: National Institutes of Health (PUBMED) were chosen on the basis of date of publication, children’s age, sample size and the diagnostic techniques (standardized laboratory techniques). Researchers imported the data into STATA SE; version 11 software. Specific prevalence was estimated with Confidence Intervals (CI) of 95%. 20 African countries were covered during review.
Scientists noted that among the G-types; G1 are the most prevailing virus in Africa revealing percentage of (32.72%), followed by G2 (17.17%), G3 (9.88%), G9 (8.61%) and G12 (7.56%). While; most encountered P-types are P (48.71%) followed by P (22.60%) and P (11.58%). Moreover; G1P combination (22.64%) was found to be the most common type followed by G2P (8.29%), G9P (6.95%) and G2P (5.00%). Ouermi and companions noted the maximum prevalence of P genotype (65.70%) in North Africa. Conclusively; this analysis provides an ample view of the recent occurrence of rotavirus genotypes in Africa, which can play a key role to develop improved vaccination and understand reasons of vaccine failure. However; thorough investigation is needed to launch rotavirus surveillance in Africa as to incessantly revise the information of RV strains in different territories.
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17 November, 2019