Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the most significant fruit trees native to the desert regions. It is the staple food of the West Asia and North Africa, where its cultivation is the major source of livelihood for peasants1. Plant tissue culture techniques are being used widely worldwide in which, closed vessels are utilized to avoid contamination which is widely used to clone plants in micropropagation and somatic embryogenesis.
Because of totipotency character of date palm; plant regeneration can done by using various plant parts to produce saplings. Somatic embryogenesis is a quick process comparatively in which embryos are produced from embryogenic callus and have ability to produce the whole plant2. Vegetative propagation by using conventional techniques in date palm is tough and time taken process because of sluggish growth of date plant3. For that reason, micropropagation is a rapid and useful alternative method for propagation and produce pathogen free and true to type plants4. The other method is direct organogenesis in which the saplings are produced through vegetative buds, directly from mother plant tissues, without passing callus phase5.
Practically, somatic embryogenesis is lengthy process because use of meristem as explant. Farmers are compelled to utilize high proportion of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid 2,4-D during callus formation which leads to mutation and abnormality. Therefore, Marjan Roshanfekrrad and companion scientists designed an experiment to develop a resourceful technique having minimum input, maximum output and less time consumption; by using in vitro roots as an explant. This study also aimed to produce embryogenic callus and somatic embryos without using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D).
For this purpose; seedlings produced by means of somatic embryogenesis were used in vitro roots as explant cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media containing three level of Silver Nitrate (AgNO3) (0, 3 and 6 mg L–1) plus two level of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) (0 and 2 mg L–1) plus 0.1 mg L–1 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) for callus induction. After 12 weeks of culture, callus induction and after 16 weeks, production of embryogenic callus and embryos were occurred from root explants.
Scientists developed effective, cheap and time technique for mass propagation of date palm Medjool cultivar through somatic embryogenesis. They observed that dependent on the concentration; silver nitrate has motivating impact on embryonic callus development. Marjan and team suggested that among the silver nitrate levels (0, 3 and 6 mg L–1) applied, middle concentrations show enhanced effect as compared to lower and higher proportions in date palm cv. Medjool. Conversely, BAP in addition with NAA can produce perfect shoot and root system ready for in vivo adaptation. Moreover, this root formation can be used as explant for further callusing and micro-propagation in future.
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13 November, 2019