Chemically reactive trace gas carbon monoxide is an indirect greenhouse gas (GHG’s). It is one of the primary air pollutants causing a significant deterioration in air quality. The carbon monoxide has an affinity for hemoglobin about 200 times greater than carbon dioxide. It forms during the biomass burning and combustion of fossil fuels and from the oxidation of CH4 by OH radicals or other carbonaceous gases.
Recently, most of the CO in the troposphere is from anthropogenic .The global CO emissions for the past decade is due to biomass burning, anthropogenic emissions and climate factors.
The heaviest pollution are emitted from industrial sources, increase in the number of residences and buildings, manufacturing facilities and a dramatic elevations in vehicles numbers. It is very important to monitor and document the changes in pollutants and atmosphere parameters to assess their impacts on health and environment. The abundance of the atmosphere gases and parameters are acquired by many ways such as; balloons, airplane and sparingly distributed measurement sites1.
These are not able to provide unremitting, extensive regional or global coverage as well as tiring efforts and cost a lot of money2. The satellite observations have very good global coverage; increase our ability to analyze the impact of human activities on the climate change and chemical composition of the atmosphere.
The free download satellite data provided by the AIRS become a useful space instrument for observing the earth’s atmosphere. Troposphere CO concentration is easily available from a large number of satellite instruments at infrared wavelengths, such as SCIAMACHY, MOPITT, IASI, AIRS and TES. The AIRS has very high capacity for daily global observations of varied atmospheric parameters. Hence, AIRS is particularly promising for studying pollution transport and CO emission3.
Researchers in a new study analyzed the spatial and temporal variations of CO and to estimate its long term-trends over study area. Outcomes of the retrieved monthly CO volume mixing ratio (VMR) obtained from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data, included on the EOS Aqua satellite over Iraq were employed4.
In order to better assess the CO distribution, trend analysis used for seven stations dispersed across Iraq: Mosul, Sulaimaniyah, Rutba, Baghdad, Nukhayb, Nasiriyah and Basra. The spatial distribution analyses of the CO maps were generated employing Kriging interpolation technique.
The results showed a considerable variability of monthly CO in spatial and temporal scale. The maximum values were over Northern and Northwestern regions and the minimum values were over Southern regions.
It was thus established that the AIRS observation efficiently showed the spatial and temporal variations of CO for the considered study area.
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23 August, 2019