Myocardial Infarction (MI) or Heart Failure is one of most deadly condition affecting millions of people around the globe. It is cause due to insufficient amount of blood supply to heart tissues because of blood vessels blockage. This leads to oxidative stress, the lack of ATPs and consequently leading to death of heart muscles1.
There are numerous factors which lead towards the heart failure such as; oxidative stress, decreased antioxidant activity, hypoxia (lack of oxygen supply), necrosis and apoptosis2.
ISO-induced Myocardial Infarction (MI) or cardio-toxicity is one of the established standard animal models to evaluate the cardio-protective function of any synthetic or natural drug. Isoproterenol (ISO) is a medication used for the treatment of slow heart rate and heart block. It is a non-selective β adreno receptor agonist.
When ISO is given at exceeding the required limit it may impose significant stress to heart muscles (myocardium) by bringing out extra free radicals. Due to auto-oxidation of ISO free radicals are excessively produced which results in inflammatory response causing necrosis or apoptosis which ultimately end up in (MI) myocardial infarction3.
The pathology of ISO-induced cardio-toxicity and MI are nearly similar i.e. oxidative stress, inflammation, hypoxia, mitochondrial dysfunction, lack of bioenergetics (lack of ATP), apoptosis and necrosis4. Scientists are always at verge of finding new compounds extracted from plants to treat such serious illness.
Tangeretin (TAN) is a flavonoid and mostly found in citrus fruit peel especially mandarin oranges and sweet oranges. Many studies have proved that it possess several biological properties such as; antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic and anti-allergic activities as well as neuro- and cardio-protective properties5, 6.
Therefore this motivated the scientists to perform a new study in order to evaluate the cardio-protective property of tangeretin (TAN) against isoproterenol (ISO) induced heart failure in a rat model7. They took 40 male rats which were separated into 4 groups; Control group, ISO induced group, TAN (pretreated) + ISO group and TAN group7.
It was observed that the levels of various hemodynamic parameters and the activities of antioxidants were increased in TAN pretreated rats comparative to ISO-induced rats. Lipid per-oxidation, inflammatory markers and apoptotic markers were significantly decreased upon treatment with TAN. Histo-morphological changes of cardiac tissue caused by ISO induction were also reverted by TAN administration.
Authors of study established that 28 days of pre-treatment with TAN significantly preserved cardiac function by suppressing oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in ISO-induced heart failure (myocardial infarction) model and hence it can be recommended to treat myocardial infarction/heart failure with conventional (standard) cardio protective agents.
Written by: Rabeeia
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20 February, 2019