It has been reported in various studies that that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic properties against many diseases through their special (parcarine) mechanism1. This parcarine mechanism is mediated by some nano size vesicles called exosomes. In the end they transfer mRNA, micro-RNA, long non-coding RNA and proteins between cells during intercellular communication2.
These exosomes are ideal therapeutic agents because of their complex proteins and genetic materials which have potential of treating intricate diseases3. Recently, the exosomes produced by the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were reported to decrease myocardial reperfusion damage and renal injury4. So far only little information is available related to their curative effects on liver injury disease.
In literature a study showed the capability of liver-derived exosomes to encourage hepatocyte proliferation after endorsement of liver injury in vitro and in vivo5. Nevertheless, researchers in that study used partial surgical removal of liver lobe to test out their hypothesis. That does not mimic the liver injury in patients and is only appropriate to study effect of exosomes on regeneration of damage hepatic tissues.
This motivated the researchers to conduct and new study in which they demonstrated the therapeutic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC)-derived exosomes on the rat model of liver injury induced by (DEN) diethylnitrosamine (DEN is a nitrosamines which are carcinogenic compounds)6.
For this purpose the researchers isolated the MSCs from bone marrow of rats and characterized by flow cytometery. Exosomes were isolated from MSCs through gradient ultracentrifugation and identified by transmission electron microscopy. Liver was induced injury with DEN. Serum levels were calculated along with cellular changes was noted.
MSCs-exosomes induced a significant reduction in serum levels of hepatic damage enzymes in contrast to liver injured rats. Serum albumin was significantly higher in the exosomes-treated group than the liver injury group. Exosomes originated from MSCs induced a significant increase in serum levels of antioxidant enzymes. On the other hand a significant decrease in the level of lipid per-oxidation marker was also found.
So it was established from the study that these results suggest ameliorative effect for exosomes on liver injury through induction of liver cells regeneration and inhibition of oxidative stress, apoptosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker, which may be helpful to understand the mechanism of liver diseases and highlight new therapeutic strategies for these diseases.
Written by: Rabeeia
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21 August, 2019