Gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV) is commonly known as gastric dilation, twisted stomach, or gastric torsion. It is a medical state that has an effect on dogs in which the stomach becomes overstretched and swiveled by excess gas content1. It can be acute or more rarely, can be chronic, acute cases can be rapidly fatal. It is common in deep chest dogs and the risk of a large or giant breed dog developing.
It is generally characterized by accretion of air and liquid in the stomach causing dilation, which may or may not be followed by its twisting. The common consequences include gastric level strokes. On systemic level it has decreased venous return. A remedial surgery treatment and close postoperative measurements are necessary to reduce the gastric but also chances of cardiac ischemia. Despite intensive care, this condition is fatal in 15-40% of dog cases2.
Researchers took an overview of two surgical procedures that can be used for treating GVS. The procedures are divided into two categories; immediate decompression and therapeutic gastropexy3.
Immediate decompression is performed successfully by passing a tube through stomach secured to the patient. The stomach tube is measured to the last rib and marked with a piece of tape. A rigid colt or charger stomach tube with a smooth tip works best. As the stomach tube is passed, it will generally meet resistance at the esophageal stomach junction.
Pass the tube firmly in a twisting manner to pass the lower esophageal sphincter4. If a stomach tube was successfully passed, stomach contents should be evaluated for color and presence or absence of necrotic looking gastric mucosa. This may give an impression of gastric viability.
The goal of a gastropexy is to create a permanent adhesion between the gastric wall and the abdominal wall. Preferably, a gastropexy should create a strong observance, have minimal complications, not affect the stomach’s natural orientation or markedly alter gastric outflow, and require minimal postoperative management.
Laparoscopy surgery sometimes called as ‘keyhole’ surgery because of the small incisions necessary and the minimally invasive scoping within the abdomen. These have a quicker recovery with less pain than more invasive procedures which require large incisions.
After either of the surgery, in most cases 3-4 days of intensive monitoring is necessary for the successful management of GDV patients and postoperative consideration should be taken. Check the ECG monitoring and gastric motility.
It was established that:
“Gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV) is characterized by accumulation of gas within the stomach, rotation of the stomach, failure of eructation and pyloric emptying, increased gastric pressure and shock. It can be acute or more rarely, can be chronic, acute cases can be rapidly fatal. It is common in deep-chested dogs and the risk of a large or giant breed dog developing. Rapid diagnosis, stabilization and surgical management can lead to a good prognosis for these dogs. The treatment of gastric dilatation-volvulus with two principal surgical techniques is done in the study discussed.”
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17 November, 2019