Escherichia coli (E. coli) are normally non-pathogenic bacteria that are found in digestive tract of poultry along with some other bacterial strains also. In order to cause a disease E.coli goes through several bird related external and internal factors which in turn may cause diarrhea or intestinal diseases1.
The disease casued by E. coli is known as colibacillosis in all poultry stock worldwide. Avian colibacillosis is considered as key factor of death and morbidity which in turn is linked with heavy economic losses to poultry industry2.
Colibacillosis’ symptoms are quite non-specific but usually it affects the young birds3. It is characterized in its acute form by poising of blood by bacteria leading to death. In its sub-acute forms it is characterized by inflammation of pericardium, airsacculitis and inflammation of pelvic region.
Keeping in view the disease severity, researchers conducted a study in order to identify those viral genes of E. coli that are associated with onset of colibacillosis4.
Researchers took 125 chicken samples in which healthy broiler chickens, diseased broiler chickens and freshly dead ones were included in different seasons. It was found that majority of E. coli isolated from chickens had at least one viral gene within them. By applying PCR technique major virulent genes were detected. The gene was identified as Shiga toxin 1 and 2 (stx1 and stx2). Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) is a heterogeneous group of bacteria causing colibacillosis.
Scientists believe more experiment and analysis are required in order to identify more virulent genes. Modern techniques like next generation sequencing can be implied to study the detailed genome of identified strain of E. coli. This can give insight about the mechanism involved in disease cause.
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17 November, 2019