Amphetamine is a Central Nervous System (CNS) stimulant that belongs to the psycho-stimulant drugs, act to speed up the messages traveling between brain and the body. Certain types of amphetamines used by the health care professionals in order to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Parkinson’s disease, and narcolepsy where a person has an uncontrollable urge to sleep. Traditionally, it has been used to treat depression and nasal congestion. Other types of amphetamines are produced and sold illegally considered as drugs.
Amphetamines are taken as performance enhancement drugs and the most compelling form is crystal methamphetamine also known as ‘ICE’. These are the second most misused type of narcotics in East and Southeast Asia as well as Oceania available in the form of tablets, powder, crystals, and capsules. These drugs are illegally sold and packed in aluminum foil, plastic bags and small balloons. Campbell et al. (2001) reported that amphetamines mixed with the other drugs, binding agents, caffeine, and sugar when marketed.
United nation Office on Drugs and Crime informed that amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) circulation increasing from 93 tons in 2010 to 191 tons in 2015 that is approximately double. Misuse of amphetamines increases the prevalence of a mental illness named psychosis that affects the way your brain processes information. Hsieh et al. (2014) reported that among 43 amphetamine users, at least 60% had symptoms of psychosis.
An amphetamine increases the release of serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline that boost the sense of energy and produce short moments of euphoria. An excessive amount of dopamine leads to the release of excess glutamate into the cortex that distracts the sensory and motor neuron. As a result, signal regulation becomes damaged, which is then related to the psychotic symptoms related to vitamin D deficiency.
Vitamin D deficiency leads to the not only bone diseases but also metabolic diseases. This deficiency occurs due to a sedentary lifestyle, lack of exposure to sunlight, and polymorphism of the vitamin D receptor gene. The major function of vitamin D or vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is to maintain healthy serum levels of calcium and phosphorus, supporting bone metabolic function and the regulation of transcription. A research published in Pakistan Journal of Nutrition by Adhayani Lubis et al. (2020) found that supplementation with cholecalciferol increases the 25(OH)D serum content (the best indicator of vitamin D supply) and effective for the therapy in ATS.
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