In a new study scientists have predicted that, Nicotine can have unfavorable effects on production and osteogenic (related to bones) differentiation of Dental Follicle Stem Cells (DFSCs) in a rat model. Vitamin E significantly diminishes the toxic effect of nicotine on DFSCs proliferation as well as osteogenic differentiation1.
Tissue damage and loss can be caused due to various reasons. So far, tissue engineering is considered to be the promising technique to recover tissue damage. Among tissue engineering, the potential of Stem Cells (SCs) is of great value. In dentistry, tissue engineering can be used for regeneration of damaged oral tissues or organs2.
Differentiation, Proliferation and self-recovery of stem cells are regulated by numerous factors such as; cytokines, interleukins, chemo-kines, extracellular matrix (ECM) and adhesion molecules. The functionally immune cells can be reduced and imbalance in stem cells can occur due to certain physiological and pathological factors e.g. cigarette, cigar smoking etc3.
Nicotine is the most common and abundant chemical substance found in consumption of cigarette smoke. It negatively affects the human embryonic stem cells and alters the cell morphology through production of many free radicals4.
Using antioxidants can have a protective effect on these free radicals by reducing the oxidative stress which in turn reduces the free radical production. Vitamin E is the most paramount antioxidant as it protects the cell membrane from any external damage. The unique chemical composition and structure of Vitamin E makes it a promising candidate to deal with oxidative stress of stem cells5.
Keeping in view the facts scientists conducted the study in which they used Vitamin E as an antioxidant in order to reduce the adverse effects to Nicotine present in cigarette1.
For this purpose the researchers used rat as experimental animal. Isolated the dental follicle stem cells of rats, cultured them and make 4 separate groups with different treatments. Cell viability was checked by MTT assay.
Wright staining solution was used to assess the effects of nicotine on cell morphology. The flow cytometric analysis was used to identify the stem-ness of isolated rat’s DFSCs. Alizarin red-sulfate (AR-S) staining and quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) utilizing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression and activity were used to determine the osteoblastic differentiation.
An increase in cell proliferation and differentiation of stem cells was found with nicotine treatment which shows that vitamin E could relief the state of oxidative process induced by nicotine. Vitamin E also can increase the capability of DFSCs to proliferate and differentiate into osteogenic lineage detected by AR-S stain and increase the ALP level.
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18 February, 2019