Cisplatin is a chemotherapy drug used to treat head and neck, ovarian, testicular, bladder, and non-small cell lung cancer. It is an Antineoplastic [acting to prevent development of a neoplasm (a tumor)], agent that have platinum (heavy metal) derivative in it1, 2.
The chemotherapeutic effect of cisplatin increases with an increasing dosage but an increased dosage causes adverse effects, such as nephro-toxicity, auto-toxicity, neurotoxicity, hepato-toxicity, nausea, vomiting and in 67% of cases, diarrhea, consequently restricting its clinical use3.
Mucositis (painful inflammation of mucous membrane) is a prominent side effect of cisplatin4. Oxidative stress is considered to play an important in cisplatin toxicity but the underlying mechanism of toxicity is still not known fully.
Cisplatin encourages the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), hence causing DNA damage, followed by secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta from endothelial epithelial cells5. As a result, development of tissue damage and ulceration occurs and mucosa becomes susceptible to bacterial contamination6.
Scientists are trying to find different approaches in order to treat the cisplatin-induced mucositis. Using plant extracts and components for curing diseases is getting more common with time. Scientists have discovered a new potential vitamin i.e. Vitamin B1 which is also known as Rutin, which is a flavonoid and vital component of nutrition.
Rutin is found in adequate amount in plants; passion flower, buckwheat, tea and apple7. It possesses many properties such as; antioxidant, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-ulcer as well as tissue renewal8. This led the scientists to perform a new study in which they investigated the effect of rutin on cisplatin-induced mucositis in rats and also biochemical, histo-pathological and immune-histochemical assessment of this flavonoid9.
The experiment was performed on 24 rats divided into groups with different concentrations of compounds. At the end all the animals were, sacrificed using a high-dose anesthetic and their small intestines (jejunum) were removed for biochemical and histo-pathological procedures.
It was found that the oxidants levels increased in all the cisplatin-treated groups, whereas those of antioxidants decreased. Rutin administered reduced oxidant levels and increased antioxidant levels to those of healthy tissues.
Histopathologically, tissue damage was observed in jejunal tissue of the rats administered only cisplatin, whereas treatment rutin prevented cisplatin-induced histopathological damage. As shown immunohistochemically, rutin prevented cisplatin-induced jejunal damage more effectively when administered at a dose dependent manner.
It was thus established that Rutin may be useful in the prevention of cisplatin-induced jejunal mucositis.
Written by: Rabeeia
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26 May, 2019